Publications

190 Result(s)
Parent, Geneviève , 2005

La contribution des accords de l'OMC à la sécurité alimentaire mondiale: L'exemple des produits agricoles issus des biotechnologies modernes, Ph.D., Faculté de droit, Université Laval, Québec, Canada, 507p.

Abstract

L'objectif général de la présente thèse est de fournir une analyse critique du rôle potentiel des accords de l'Organisation mondiale du commerce (OMC) dans l'atteinte de la sécurité alimentaire mondiale durable. Le concept de sécurité alimentaire retenu aux fins de cette thèse est celui déterminé lors du Sommet mondial de l'alimentation, tenu à Rome en 1996, auquel nous juxtaposons le concept de développement durable. L'objectif spécifique de cette thèse est d'analyser la contribution des accords de l'OMC à la production et à la circulation marchandes des produits agricoles issus des biotechnologies modernes (PAIBM) pour assurer la disponibilité des ces produits sur les marchés, au bénéfice d'une sécurité alimentaire qui soit durable. Le choix de nous attarder au choix des PAIBM nous permet de nous interroger sur la contribution des accords de l'OMC dans leurs aspects les plus modernes. Cette analyse s'effectue à deux niveaux : 1) la contribution qui émane des relations des règles de l'OMC entre elles (cohérence interne) et 2) celle qui ressort de l'intégration de ces normes dans un environnement plus vaste qui est celui du droit international public général (cohérence externe). Notre travail nous conduit à confirmer l'hypothèse de départ selon laquelle les accords de l'OMC contiennent certaines pistes de solution pour assurer la souplesse nécessaire à une production et une circulation de PAIBM qui se fasse au profit de la sécurité alimentaire. Ces pistes de solutions sont toutefois tenues. Elles doivent être consolidées et renforcées afin d'assurer que la sécurité alimentaire que les accords de l'OMC servent soit durable, sans quoi notre hypothèse de départ pourrait être réfutée par l'analyse des nouvelles versions des accords de l'OMC issus du cycle de négociations de Doha. L'OMC doit surtout tendre vers davantage de cohérence externe. Elle doit en effet prendre en compte plus efficacement des considérations autres que commerciales, de concert avec les accords environnementaux, afin d'assurer la durabilité de sa contribution à la sécurité alimentaire. Le concept de développement durable devrait servir d'assise à cette cohérence.

Chabot, Marcelle , 2004

Consumption and Standards of Living of the Québec Inuit: Cultural Permanence and Discontinuities, Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology, 41(2): 147-170.

Abstract

This study explores some recent trends in the economic practices of the Inuit of Nunavik (Quebec, Canada). It is based on a characterization of the monetary and non-monetary transactions made by a sample of 38 Inuit households in 1995. The analyses show that the Inuit are highly dependent on manufactured goods. The rise in income has allowed for more discretionary income; however, analyses suggest that current economic conditions place limitations on the development of individual wants and aspirations, as well as play a significant role in encouraging traditional norms of conduct. It is suggested that material conditions and values mutually reinforce one another to reduce the penetration of a consumer culture.

Chabot, M. and G. Duhaime et al., 2004

The Impacts of Dietary Changes Among the Inuit of Nunavik (Canada): A Socioeconomic Assessment of Possible Public Health Recommendations Dealing with Food Contamination, Risk Analysis, 24(4), 1007-1118.

Abstract

Inuit populations meet a large portion of their food needs by eating country food in which pollutants are concentrated. Despite the fact that they contain pollutants, the consumption of country food has many health, social, economic, and cultural benefits. A risk determination process was set up in order to help regional health authorities of Nunavik to deal with this particular issue. Based on Nunavik health authorities' objectives to encourage the region's inhabitants to change their dietary habits, and on both the risks and the benefits of eating country food, several management options were developed. The options aimed at reducing exposure to contaminants by either substituting certain foods with others that have a lower contaminant content or by store-bought foods. This article aims at assessing the potential economic impact of these risk management options before being implemented. Relevant economic data (aggregate income and monetary outlays for the purchase of food and equipment required for food production by households) were collected and identified to serve as a backdrop for the various replacement scenarios. Results show that household budgets, and the regional economy, are not significantly affected by the replacement of contaminated foods with the purchase of store-bought meat, and even less so if the solution involves replacing contaminated foods with other types of game hunted in the region. When financial support is provided by the state, the households can even gain some monetary benefits. Results show that public health authorities' recommended changes to dietary habits among the Inuit of Nunavik would not necessarily involve economic constraints for Inuit households.

Duhaime, Gérard ,

Circumpolar Socio-Economic Comparisons. A Tool for Better Governance, In Northern Research Forum. Northern Veche. Veliky Novgorod, NRF: 175-178.

Abstract not available
Duhaime, Gérard et al., 2004

Economic Systems, In: Arctic Human Development Report, Arctic Council., O. Young et N. Einarsson (dir.), Arctic Human Development Report, Reykjavik, Iceland, pp 69-84.

Abstract

The formal economy of the Arctic is mainly based on large-scale exploitation of natural resources (e.g. mineral, oil and gas, and fish), most of which are exported. The service sector is well developed in many parts of the Arctic, whereas manufacturing plays a relatively minor role. Public services are often supported by transfer payments from central governments but overall, more money is flowing out of the Arctic than into the region. The large-scale exploitation of Arctic resources is important to the national economies of several Arctic countries, as well as in the global economy. This is especially true for the Russian Arctic. The size and structure of the economy differ between and within countries. The gaps between wealthy and poor regions appear everywhere but are most extreme in Russia and North America. The Arctic is likely to continue to play a role as a reservoir of resources for the rest of the world. New trends are privatization of resources and new forms of economic partnerships.

Duhaime, Gérard , 2004

La situation socio-économique du Nunavik et l'avenir de l'État, Communication présentée dans le cadre des Forums régionaux sur l'avenir du Québec, Kuujjuaq, 17 juin 2004. Chaire de recherche du Canada sur la condition autochtone comparée, Collection Recherche en ligne, Université Laval, Québec, Canada, 15p.

Abstract not available
Duhaime, Gérard , 2004

Social and Economic Situation of Nunavik and the Future of State, Paper presented in the Forums régionaux sur l'avenir du Québec, Kuujjuaq, June 17, 2004, Canada Research Chair on Comparative Aboriginal Condition, Collection Recherche en ligne, Université Laval, Québec, Canada, 14p.

Abstract not available
Duhaime, G., J. Baert and L. Ampleman , 2004

Gestion intégrée des réseaux de transport dans le Nord-Du-Québec, Chaire de recherche du Canada sur la condition autochtone comparée, Collection Recherche en ligne, Université Laval, Québec, Canada, 104p.

Abstract not available
Duhaime, G., E. Searles, P. Usher, H. Myers and P. Fréchette , 2004

Social Cohesion and Living Conditions in the Canadian Arctic: From Theory to Measurement, Social Indicators Research, 66(3), 295-317

Abstract

Social cohesion has emerged as a powerful hybrid concept used by academics and policy analysts. Academics use the concept to underline the social and economic failings of modernity, linking it to the decline of communal values and civic participation. Policy analysts use it to highlight the social and economic inequities caused by globalization. The desired effect of using this concept is often to influence governments to implement policies that will enhance social cohesion by reducing social and economic disparities. Despite its widespread use, however, statistical measures of social cohesion tend to overlook local, non-Western strategies of social inclusion as well as the social impact of non-Western economic systems, such as the mixed economy typical of many Aboriginal communities in North America. In this paper, we develop a model of social cohesion that addresses these omissions through the use of social indicators that measure both the behavior and perceptions of Inuit living in the Canadian Arctic with respect to the social, cultural and economic conditions of Arctic communities. We explain how and why measuring social cohesion is optimized by combining both culturally-specific and non-specific social indicators.

Auclair, Rémy , 2003

Des ordres sociaux: marché et réciprocité dans l'Arctique, M.A., Département de sociologie, Université Laval, Québec, Canada, 145p.

Abstract

Ce mémoire s'intéresse au changement social au sein de la société inuit à travers un cas d'étude précis: l'approvisionnement alimentaire des ménages. Le champ d'observation est l'Arctique nord-américain. Les données de cette étude proviennent, d'une part, de la littérature portant sur les Inuit et, d'autre part, d'une enquête sur échantillon probabiliste intitulée Households food supply networks in the circumpolar Arctic, dont le questionnaire a été administré dans quatre régions de l'Arctique au cours des années 2000 et 2001. L'analyse de l'ensemble de ces données révèle que le recours au don et au marché sont deux pratiques contribuant au processus d'approvisionnement alimentaire des ménages inuit. Mais cette importance relative du don ne suffit pas cependant à assurer l'essentiel de l'approvisionnement alimentaire des ménages inuit; pour cela, ceux-ci doivent désormais compter sur le marché. Le regard sociologique nous a permis de constater que la société inuit participe encore à une reproduction sociétale d'ordre culturel, mais il semble que l'ordre économique exerce maintenant sur la société un ascendant important.

2003

Economic Changes, Household Strategies and Social Relations of Contemporary Nunavik Inuit. , Polar Record, United Kingdom, 39 (208) : 19-34.

Abstract

This article examines current economic practices of the Inuit of Nunavik and the consequences of these practices on social relations. In western societies, recourse to market and increasingly frequent use of money have been identified as major factors related to a decline in household production. These practices are also associated with a reduction of interpersonal dependency and with the emergence of instrumental rationality. In Nunavik, like in many Arctic regions, money and commodities represent an increasing portion of the economic resources of Inuit households. Household production also contributes substantially to their resources. An examination of the Inuit household budget shows a diversity of lifestyles supported by various economic activities and strategies that aim at satisfying material needs of family members. These strategies demonstrate that Inuit are economically rational and make use of monetary calculation. This rationality does not influence all economic behaviours, which are also motivated by traditional values and customary obligations. However, the emergence of diversity in lifestyles indicates the existence of a greater margin of self-determination for individuals.

Comtois, R. and G. Duhaime , 2003

Abandoned Mining Exploration Equipment in Nunavik. Methods to Identify and Locate Potential Sites, In: Rasmussen, R.O. & N.E. Koroleva (eds.), Social and Environmental Impacts in the North. Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop: Methods in Evaluation of Socio-Economic and Environmental Consequences of Mining and Energy Production in the Arctic and Sub-Arctic,, Apatity, Russia, from 8 to 12 May 2002. Kluwer, NATO Science Series IV (Earth and Environmental Sciences), Volume 31, pp. 353-367.

Abstract

Since the 1950s, the territory of Québec has been the site of important mining and exploration works. Prior to 1976, mining companies were not required to clean up exploration sites, and consequently there are a large number of abandoned mine and exploration sites where outdated equipment and empty drums has been left, just as the presence of oil and chemical wastes has become of concern for the Inuit populations due to health and environment hazards. The main challenge of the inventory project has been to develop methods which has enabled the location of the abandoned sites. The paper presents the different approaches to the problem, with details about techniques which have turned out to be effective.

Duhaime, G., R. Auclair, N. Bernard, D. St-Pierre, H. Myers and G. Hansen , 2003

Les réseaux d'approvisionnement alimentaire des ménages de l'Arctique nord-américain, Chaire de recherche du Canada sur la condition autochtone comparée, Collection recherche en ligne, Université Laval, Québec, Canada, 38p.

Abstract not available
Duhaime, G., N. Bernard, P. Fréchette, M. Maillé, A. Morin and A. Caron , 2003

The Mining Industry and the Social Stakes of Development in the Arctic, Canada Research Chair on Comparative Aboriginal Condition, Collection recherche en ligne, Université Laval, Québec, Canada, 20p.

Abstract not available
Statistique Canada , 2003

Enquête auprès des peuples autochtones 2001: guide des concepts et méthodes, Ottawa, Statistique Canada, catalogue no 89-591-XIF, 49p.

Abstract

Ce document vise à fournir aux utilisateurs une explication des concepts et des définitions utilisées dans l'Enquête auprès des peuples autochtones de 2001, qui a été menée de l'automne 2001 au printemps 2002. On y trouve aussi des détails techniques sur l'échantillonnage, le traitement des données, la qualité des donnés, etc. Dans le guide, on explique la relation entre l'Enquête auprès des peuples autochtones et le Recensement de 2001 et on souligne les différences importantes entre les données de ces deux sources. Le document comporte aussi une liste de produits.

Statistique Canada , 2003

Enquête auprès des peuples autochtones de 2001, première diffusion: tableaux de soutien 2

Abstract

L'Enquête auprès des peuples autochtones de 2001 (EAPA) est une enquête postcensitaire incluant les adultes et les enfants ayant déclaré lors du recensement une ascendance autochtone, une identité autochtone, un statut d'Indien inscrit et/ou une appartenance à une bande. Environ 76 000 adultes et 41 000 enfants vivant dans des ménages privés des provinces et des territoires ont été choisis pour participer à l'enquête. Les données ont été recueillies de septembre 2001 à janvier 2002. Ces tableaux contiennent des données sur les raisons pour quitter l'école primaire et secondaire et les raisons pour abandonner les études postsecondaires de la population d'identité autochtone (de 15 ans et plus) vivant hors réserve, pour le Canada, les provinces et les territoires. En outre, on fournit les données de groupes autochtones en particulier (les Indiens de l'Amérique du Nord, les Métis et les Inuits).

Statistique Canada , 2003

Enquête auprès des peuples autochtones de 2001, première diffusion: tableaux de soutien, Ottawa, Statistique Canada, catalogue no 89-592-XIF, 90p.

Abstract

L'Enquête auprès des peuples autochtones de 2001 (EAPA) est une enquête postcensitaire incluant les adultes et les enfants ayant déclaré lors du recensement une ascendance autochtone, une identité autochtone, un statut d'Indien inscrit et/ou une appartenance à une bande. Environ 76 000 adultes et 41 000 enfants vivant dans des ménages privés des provinces et des territoires ont été choisis pour participer à l'enquête. Les données ont été recueillies de septembre 2001 à janvier 2002. Ces tableaux contiennent des données sur la santé, l'éducation, les pensionnats et la langue de la population d'identité autochtone (de 15 ans et plus) vivant hors réserve, pour le Canada, les provinces et les territoires. En outre, on fournit les données de groupes autochtones en particulier (les Indiens de l'Amérique du Nord, les Métis et les Inuits) pour quelques variables.

Usher, P., G. Duhaime and E. Searles , 2003

The household as an Economic Unit in Arctic Aboriginal Communities and its Measurement by Means of a Comprehensive survey, Social Indicators Research, 61(2): 175-202.

Abstract

Northern aboriginal communities are widely recognized as having mixed, subsistence-based economies. The chief characteristic of this economy, aside from the contribution of subsistence harvesting and related activities to household well-being, is that the household operates as a "micro-enterprise" that is the basic unit of production as well as consumption. This economic form has persisted into the present day, contrary to the predictions of many social scientists and policy-makers. This paper outlines a model of the household in mixed, subsistence-based economies, and describes its characteristics and activities. While the discussion focuses on northern Canada, the model is thought to apply generally in the circumpolar North. Quantitative measurement of northern aboriginal household characteristics and activities has been limited, however, because national and regional data collection systems are not designed specifically to capture these phenomena. The model is therefore based primarily on the results of in-depth case studies, and the systematic measurement of subsistence harvesting. This paper describes the development, for the first time, of a questionnaire specifically designed to document quantitatively the key characteristics of the household economy as part of a comprehensive survey of living conditions in the circumpolar Arctic.

Arbour, Jean-Maurice , 2002

Food Secutity in the Arctic and International Environmental Law: A General Framework, In: Duhaime, G. (ed.), Sustainable Food Security in the Arctic. State of Knowledge. Edmonton, University of Alberta, CCI Press & GÉTIC, Occasional publications series no.52, pp. 153-175

Abstract

It is impossible to guarantee food security in the Arctic if problems relating to the protection of the environment on the one hand, and the promotion of a sustainable development on the other, are not taken into consideration by governments and people. As major sources of pollution in the Arctic originate both within and outside the region, the eight Arctic countries must work together to address common concerns. While global problems like the depletion of the ozone layer, transboundary air pollution, and global warming requite global solutions, the establishment of regional programs seems more appropriate to solve problems particular to Arctic countries. From the standpoint of international law, environmental problems and problems relating to sustainable development transcend national boundaries. The role of international law is to provide mechanisms to facilitate cooperation between nation states, negotiate the legal norms, regulate the use of resources, settle disputes, supervise implementation of treaties and amend existing treaties through the introduction of new norms. The object of this chapter is to portray the general framework of international environmental law applicable to the Arctic. As regards problems specific to the circumpolar region, there exists a substantial body of instruments that deal with various aspects of the Arctic environment. In the final report, an attempt will be made to measure the effectiveness of existing treaties and identify the legal gaps to be filled in order to assure food security in the Arctic.

Blanchet, Carole , 2002

Diet Profile of Circumpolar Inuit, In: Duhaime, G. (ed.), Sustainable Food Security in the Arctic. State of Knowledge. Edmonton, University of Alberta, CCI Press & GÉTIC, Occasional publications series no.52, pp. 47-60

Abstract

Nutrition surveys conducted in the Arctic indicate major variations in nutrient intake among Inuit from different regions. However, no studies have been undertaken to evaluate the importance of these differences or similarities in term of nutrient intakes. In order to provide a basis for comparison of the different Arctic regions, a profile of food consumption and nutritional patterns for each circumpolar region is required. The main objective of this chapter was to describe Inuit diet and estimate nutritional values for each region (Canada, Alaska, Greenland, Siberia), and to study trends over rime. To do this, an inventory was taken of all nutritional surveys conducted on Inuit populations in the circumpolar Arctic, as well as a review of the different survey methods used, and standardized data compiled. For interregional comparisons, only the most recent and most complete surveys were considered. However, the more dated surveys served to establish temporal trends. Mean consumption leve1s, energy and nutrient intakes were measured according to gender and age. The contribution of traditional and market foods to energy and nutrient intakes were also assessed. Finally, the principal diet changes occurring in Inuit populations in the last decades were put in perspective to identify the ideal conditions in which an optimal diet can be secured.

Caulfield, Richard A. , 2002

Food Security in Artic Alaska: A Preliminary Assessment, In: Duhaime, G. (ed.), Sustainable Food Security in the Arctic. State of Knowledge. Edmonton, University of Alberta, CCI Press & GÉTIC, Occasional publications series no.52, pp. 75-92

Abstract

Alaska's Arctic communities have a dynamic mixed economy that is central to understanding food security and sustainable development. In this economy, cash and country food production are mutually supportive. Country foods are vital to nutritional, economic, and cultural development in Alaska's Aboriginal communities. Research in northern Alaska shows that they are widely obtained, consumed, and shared within families and communities. At the same time, imported foods offer a wide array of nutritional choices. However, they are often expensive, their availability can be uncertain, and their quality can vary greatly. This paper describes Alaska's northern most regions and discusses this mixed economy as it relates to food security and safety. It highlights five major issues affecting food security in northern Alaska: subsistence conflicts, contaminants in country foods, global climate change, industrial development and habitat degradation, and animal rights activism. It also points to additional research needs important to understanding Alaska's food security in a circumpolar context.

Chabot, M., G. Duhaime and M. Gaudreault , 2002

Food Consumption Patterns and Socioeconomic Factors Among the Inuit of Nunavik, Ecology of Food and Nutrition, 41(2): 91-118.

Abstract

This article examines the dietary patterns of the Inuit of Nunavik, based on data from a 1992 Government of Quebec survey. Using data primarily from the Food Frequency questionnaire on a sample of 178 women between 18 and 74 years of age, the study investigates the role of various socioeconomic factors and the influence of the socioeconomic status of the household to which each woman belongs. These factors are analyzed in relation to the proportion of traditional or industrial foods consumed by respondents. The study shows that the presence of a male head of the household and, to a lesser extent, access to an income, raise the proportion of country foods in the diet. Other findings reveal that the main mechanisms for the distribution of country foods, such as sharing practices and a community freezer, play a significant role, but do not compensate when the above two conditions are not found in households.

Duhaime, Gérard , 2002

Food Networks in the North American Arctic, In: Duhaime, G. (ed.), Sustainable Food Security in the Arctic. State of Knowledge. Edmonton, University of Alberta, CCI Press & GÉTIC, Occasional publications series no.52, pp. 63-74

Abstract

This chapter presents the state of our knowledge about the formal economy of food security in the Arctic. It explains the main characteristics of food markets in different Arctic regions, and addresses such questions as: what businesses are involved (private, public, local, national, international, etc.)? What is the structure of the supply chain (import/export, links from the producers to retail stores)? Is local food sold in the formal market (products of renewable resource exploitation and local manufacture, when available)? Are the food chains well established and reliable, or new and fragile? etc. This is the first time an effort is made to synthesize such issues, usually considered under the single angle of the hunting and fishing production in the Arctic. This work provides solid basis for evaluating this key component of food supply and consumption, even if it concludes that more research has to be done to have a complete picture.

Duhaime, Gérard , 2002

Sustainable Food Security in the Arctic: State of Knowledge, In: Duhaime, G. (ed.), Sustainable Food Security in the Arctic. State of Knowledge. Edmonton, University of Alberta, CCI Press & GÉTIC, Occasional publications series no.52, 252p.

Abstract not available